The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) -- the main federal law affecting education from kindergarten through high school.  Proposed by President Bush shortly after his inauguration, NCLB was signed into law on January 8th, 2002.  NCLB is built on four principles: accountability for results, more choices for parents, greater local control and flexibility, and an emphasis on doing what works based on scientific research.  For more information, please see U.S. Department of Education No Child Left Behind website.